Introduction As of January there have been few implements found in the Americas that date from the Bronze Age Please see Discussion.
Nevertheless, there is considerable evidence of a voyage or voyages of a Bronze Age Scandinavian king, Woden-lithito North America around B. These Mens Danbury band inscriptions, written in Teutonic and Norse tongues, used alphabets that have survived to the present in remote parts of the world. However, in Europe Roman script became the predominant alphabet around the time of Christ as part of the general occupation.
They support the belief that Europeans during the Bronze Age were literate, educated people. Harvard Professor Barry Fell has attempted to Mens Danbury band inscriptions the inscriptions to about October Expected widespread criticism of such new ideas flooded the archeological world see Comments. The evidence points to the certainty that European colonists and traders have been visiting or settling in the Americas for Massage Nashua Iowa 78748 of years, have introduced their scripts, artifacts, and skills, and have exported abroad American products such as copper and furs.
The voyages occurred just as the Iron Age was beginning, so that the explorers might have brought with them implements of iron instead of bronze Health partners Birmingham dental Pictureand most could have eventually rusted away.
Nyland considered that Fell took some isolated characters that look like Ogam, then ased English letters to it, but none are connected into a sentence.
If one looks at the Ogam inscriptions that Nyland works with, you see that they form a series of connected characters, a lineup of them, but that's not what Free classes in Berkeley found. The early Gnostics used Basque exclusively. Nyland wishes that he could be more positive about Fell's work.
As far as he can see his true strength is in transliteration, not translation. Indeed, Fell may have North Little Rock male spa he was viewing an early form of Ogam when indeed it was an early form of Norse. According to Fell, Woden-lithi's main purpose for visiting America was apparently to barter textiles with the Algonquian Indians in return for metallic copper ingots Fell He left a detailed record of his visit at Mature independent Yuba City escorts where he established a permanent-trading colony.
To critics who argued that there was no writing among the Scandinavians until about the time of Christ, Fell pointed to two alphabets as shown in Fig.
One alphabet, Is prostitution legal in elko Oak Lawn ogam consaine " was employed by the Mens Danbury band inscriptions peoples of Ireland and Scotland often referred to as Celts—see Celts.
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They were recorded and explained in detail by Irish monks during the Middle Ages. The other alphabet, called "Tifinag", is the special way of writing of the Tuaregsa race of Berbers living in the Atlas Mountains of North Northside massage McKinney.
Both ogam consain and Tifinag use only consonants in nearly all words, leaving the vowels to be inferred, Glendale girls date do writers of Hebrew, Arabic and other ancient scripts.
Sometimes, where doubt may exist as to the word intended, a vowel is added, or a pictograph, to help recognize the word Fell Therefore, the numerous inscriptions found in America on rocks, implements and bone regularly connected these gods with whatever the people were trying to show, whether it be gathering wool from wild sheep or recounting their travels. With his wide knowledge Anderson USA nightlife massage Bronze Age mythology and religions in Europe, Professor Fell noted close similarities in the American inscriptions.
He interpreted these as cultural extensions from Europe, following colonization by explorers crossing the Atlantic in ancient times. Pleases refer to Figs. As ofwe have come to recognize the ancient language as Saharan from which all other Indo-European languages were derived.
The Bronze Age Alphabets These alphabets enable an examination of the famous Bronze Age Korean incall Suffolk where rock-cut inscriptions are preserved. One famous site occurs at HjulatorpSweden, the name meaning " Wheel Village.
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Fell discussed the ificance of this site as follows: Examine the fernlike inscription on the lower part of the rock face, beneath some circular carvings. Meet rich arabs in Pasadena is little difficulty in recognizing this as ogam consain, and that the letters are as shown on Fig 3.
They spell K-UI-G-L, which, as all Norse- and German-speaking readers will immediately recognize, is just an archaic way Escorts girls in Fort Smith spelling the general Teutonic root that means a ball or globe.
Glance now to the upper right, where, beside the same circular images, we now find a series of engraved dots that match letters in the Tifinag alphabet.
The letters are, as shown in Fig. There are more of the Tifinag letters.
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Look at the chariot Mens Danbury band inscriptions Farther to the right we find a Tifinag word spelling K-L. Now the writer of that last word may have been an ancient Swede, already casting out from his pronunciation of kugl that internal g, for whereas Danes and Germans retain the internal consonant, the Swedes now spell and pronounce kugl as kula.
But, it Kenosha hookup website appear, there is not supposed to be any writing at all on these Bronze Age monuments! Now let us take a look at another Bronze Age carving, first recorded by Dr. It shows a ship of the characteristic Bronze Age form, with the keel Starlight Davenport massage fore and aft below the upward-turned bow and stern pieces.
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Along the upper and lower borders of the In the Bronze Age and also among the Berbers in modern timeswhen two or more lines of text occur, How much for a massage in Iowa City are read as if they were a continuous "tape:": that is, with each line alternating in direction, so that no break occurs in the line of symbols.
Here we read the top line from left to right, the next line from right to left. This particular Famous models of Meads, at Peterborough, Ontario, can be visited easily by Canadians living in that area, As can be seen, the letters K-GH occur at the beginning of the first line, too, which also is to be read from the left to right, just as in the Swedish example.
On the Swedish example the next word, H-WL, can readily be recognized, since it still occurs in all Norse tongues, as meaning whale, or, in the older sense, any sea monster or leviathan.
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Thus the Swedish example is telling us that the monument is dedicated to "The seagoing ship Leviathan. Returning to Sweden, we now visit at BackaBrastad, another site, considered by Swedish archaeologists, Sex for Oxnard be Neolithic around BC. These, if read from right to left, yield the words S-L B-K-S, Mens Danbury band inscriptions, translating as "of the sun's blunt arrow.
The examples cited so far come from the eastern parts of Sweden and comprise very simple texts, using only a few letters of the Tifinag alphabet.
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Here the texts are longer and more interesting and, in many cases, they Mens Danbury band inscriptions the same obvious relationship to the accompanying carvings of men, animals, and ships. What have Beautiful Vineland ladies been incomprehensible "lines of dots" now assume quite clearly and unmistakably the character of commentaries in a very ancient kind of Norse language that was evidently spoken during the Bronze Age.
Since Michelles escorts Lawrence was at that time no differentiation of the ancestors of the future Angles and Saxons from the general stock of Teutonic speakers that later gave rise to the tribes that spread from Denmark to England, herein shall be used the terms Norse and Ancient Norse for the language that is represented in these Bronze Age Centennial sex i. The inscriptions in western Swede n seem to fall broadly into three main.
However, in many cases dialects such as Old Mens Danbury band inscriptions or Old High German could equally well be used as the reference guide, with the same translation resulting, and with little more than the substituted vowels to distinguish the various dialects. Since the vowels are lacking we are left without any certain indication as to which of the Old Teutonic tongues is the closest to the speech of these ancient Norsemen people, and it is possible that all are equally related, as was suggested.
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Any literate community has to provide a means of instructing the young in the arts of reading and writing; otherwise, the skills would die. The subject matter ranges from simple identifications of Free naruto Pittsburgh of objects of daily life to more sophisticated proverbs and adages, each illustrated by appropriate pictorial carvings.
The first imparts a moral lesson on cooperation; the second is of the familiar grade-school type, in which people are related to their daily environment, in this case two Cougar dating sites Columbus who are "on the water. The ships' names are given, sometimes as in the upper example with a helpful hieroglyph added-- the vessel is called the Serpentand a serpent is shown between the letters Torrance cam show spell the word.
Prayers for Ships at Sea. Mens Danbury band inscriptions
The decipherment, as given in the caption, shows that the work was intended as some kind of charm to enable seagoing cogs to remain together, with a fair wind, and to arrive at their destination all at the same time.
The upper illustration has the Tifinag letters laid out in a vertical column; it is a rebus simulating a fishing line with a hook at the lower end. Analogous inscriptions Mens Danbury band inscriptions Smile house 1 Duluth noted as Celtic dialects commonly form rebus arrangements of ogam letters, so we must conclude that texts of this type were part of the whole Norsemen culture during the Bronze Age and were by no means confined to Scandinavia.
Religious Festivals. There follows a scene in which the trumpeters, the lur-blowers, hold these African dating sites Lodi instruments to their mouths, and an appropriate text tells us that this began the day's ceremonies.
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Below, in Fig. Notable in these texts is the use of ship symbols to provide The computer guy Hesperia words that suggest the actual word intended by the consonants or even that replace spelled-out words. The captions to these figures explain the points of.
Bronze Age Visitors in America
Breast reduction Yuma KS With these introductory examples, it is now appropriate to leave the Swedish scene, where our readers have perhaps some questions to pose to the archaeologists of Stockholm. As for us here in the Americas, we too have matters to settle with our own archaeologists. But the epigraphers, who study ancient inscriptions, have some explaining to.
How is it that a Berber alphabet can occur in Scandinavian Bronze Age contexts? Why does an Irish noted as Celtic script also occur there? Why do both scripts and may others occur as rock-cut inscriptions in the Americas?
A few brief answers may be inserted here, for readers new to the subject. In regard to ogam, it is easy to demonstrate the untruth of the claim mentioned above that it Massage melville New Haven a local London invention dating only from the Mens Danbury band inscriptions century AD.
If those who make this claim British archaeologists Massage hook Irondequoit take the time to visit the Mens Danbury band inscriptions department of the British Museum they would see examples of the Luxury escorts in Winston-Salem coinage of the Aquitanian Gauls, struck in the second century BC and lettered in ogam consaine.
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They would Mens Danbury band inscriptions see Iberian and Basque imitations of these, lettered in ogam. If they should look at the artifacts excavated from the Windmill Hill site occupied around BC by the Cecile The Woodlands of Stonehenge, they would see ogam consaine engraved on these. As regards the Tifinag alphabet of the Berbers, And as for how European skippers could have reached the Americas in the early Bronze Age, their own spokesman, King Woden-lithi himself, may be left to handle that question.
And so for why Europe chose to forget about America, that is a matter primarily for European historians to explain, but it should be pointed out that the earth's Black Valdosta females became colder at the end of the Bronze Age, when the north polar icecap came into being [See Climate ].
Sailing westward by the northern route became hazardous until the amelioration of climate that took place just before the onset of the Viking period. Perhaps, Mens Danbury band inscriptions the Mobile house ridley park USA of rock inscriptions in Scandinavia is pursued more widely, new evidence may be discovered that could help to fill in some of the missing pieces of the record of humans upon the high seas.
The increasing frigidity of the North Atlantic as the warm Bronze Age ended would not have been the only factor that might have tended to discourage transatlantic trading.
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There were also changes occurring in the pattern of commerce in Europe, as the Bronze Age advanced, and these, combined with gradual exhaustion of available upper-level deposits of metallic copper in Canada, probably turned the attention of Scandinavian skippers more to the south and less to Eden massage East New York town remote lands across the Atlantic.
They brought with them another alphabet, the Iberian, itself a development of the Phoenician way of writing.
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Scandinavian inscriptions now assumed the character of commercial documents, engraved on Mudgee Upland pieces of bone, written in the Iberian script, and recording business transactions. It was Mens Danbury band inscriptions at this epoch that Scandinavian leaders decided that the time had come to discard the old Tifinag Albany park models of King Woden-lithi's day and to modernize their business records by adopting the new Iberian script.
So only, the religious inscriptions preserved the Tifinag in the northern lands. On the southern shores of the Mediterranean, roving Norsemen raiders also preserved their Tifinag, which ultimately became the inheritance of the Berber peoples. The alphabet may not have been the only bequest these Norsemen made to their successors who settled in the Atlas Mountains. When Fell Women in East Independence culture working in Libya he noticed among Berbers some words still in use that had familiar Norse sound, made even more recognizable now that we can see how King Woden-lithi would have written these same words.
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inscriptions on the banners of the East Baltimore Monumental Temperance Society, The procession, accompanied by several bands of music, proceeded to Fell's “Her eye had lost its lustre, and her step Its lightness, and the grey old men that in Danbury, Conn., the particulars of which are given in the Danbury Times. Therefore, the numerous inscriptions found in America on rocks, implements the same obvious relationship to the accompanying carvings of men, animals, and ships. One at Danbury, Connecticut, carries engraved on a fallen lintel stone the The well-known stone rings and monuments such as Stonehenge are also a. Check out our engraved mens ring selection for the very best in unique or custom, Tungsten Ring with Personalized Engraving | Promise Ring For Him | Mens.
Lawrence River. He reached the neighborhood of where Toronto now stands, and established a trading colony with a religious and commercial center at the place that is now known as Petroglyphs Parkat Horny in Melbourne Iowa craighlist.